Saham is an Arabic Astrology term which in Arabic means an Arrow aimed at a specific target.
These were also known as Arabic Parts and Arabic Lots in medieval astrology books. During a last two decades west has been again interested in Ancient Astrology Techniques and had revised a lot o knowledge rom ancient sources due to which it has been discovered that Sahams are a very old tool of ancient Astrology which was used even by Egyptian and then Greek and Sasanian/Iranian Astrologers.
What we have to understand clearly is that Arabic Astrologers no where claimed that they invented this technique but always quoted them to have from ancient astrologers books, e.g. look at Abu Rehan Al biruni book which i am quoting here for your info
*** The book of instruction in the elements of the art of astrology****.
He wrote clearly that he got these Sahams from Abu Muashar book and where he got confirmation rom ancient sources he tells us that this and this Sahams is by Hermes or other old Astrologers.
Here is exact Paragraph from his book
*** Verse 476. Other Lots than Part of Fortune
Ptolemy recognized only one Part of Fortune, but others have introduced an excessive number of methods of casting lots at nativities. We reproduce in tables those which Abu Ma’shar has mentioned.
In each case there are three things to be attended to: place 1 – the beginning ‘mubdá’; place 2 – the end ‘muntahá’; and place 3 – the casting point ‘malqá’, which are treated as in the preceding paragraph, the position in a figure of the heavens of the fortune or lot in question being thereby determined. [Note] These three points are called respectively ‘manqud’ [amount subtracted], ‘manqud minhu’ [that from which it is subtracted] and ‘muzad ralaihi’ [amount added]. Sometimes the same arrangement is used for both diurnal and nocturnal nativities, but frequently points 1 and 2 are interchanged for nocturnal ones.
It is impossible to enumerate the lots which have been invented for the solution of horary questions, and for answering enquiries as to prosperous outcome or auspicious time for action; they increase in number every day, but the following 97 different lots, 7 of which belong to the planets, 80 to the houses and 10 to neither are those most commonly in use. *****
From the above quotation what i understand and was taught by my teacher Late Dr Mohammad Ayub Taji, he nowhere complaints about sahams uses but only is just informing us that different Astrologers are using many more sahams invented by them in different branches of Astrology which is difficult or him to quote so he prefered to quote only the Sahams written by Abu Mushar.
In another posts i will share all the sahams by Al Beruni on Different Topics.